The business negotiations under different cultural conditions come to cross- cultural negotiations. With the economic globalization and the frequent business contacts, cultural differences seem to be very important; otherwise they could cause unnecessary misunderstanding, even affect the result of the business negotiations. This means it is very important to know the different culture in different countries and the ways to avoid the culture conflicts in the international business negotiations. The article commences from the types of culture differences, then it explains the impacts of these culture differences on international business negotiation and finally it analyzes how to deal with the problem of the cultural differences correctly in negotiation process. Such a standpoint is emphasized: In the business negotiations between different countries, negotiators should accept the other party’s culture, and try to make him be accepted; then make a correct evaluation with the help of valid communication and discover their real benefits between them. Besides, we should know clearly and try to accept the culture differences as possible as we can. It is very important for the success of culture negotiations.
Key words: Culture, Clturaltal differences,Business negotitation,Impact
Along with the advancement globalization and China’s WTO entry, business enterprises in China have to face more and more business negotiations with foreign enterprises, especially with American enterprises. In these negotiations, Chinese negotiators sometimes feel uncomfortable, puzzled, lost, irritated and the alike, because of unfamiliar custom and behaviors demonstrated by American negotiators. Meanwhile, American negotiators confront the same situation. Cult rural differences between China and west countries could cause many problems. Therefore, understanding cultural differences and overcoming them is crucial in international business negotiations.
Although the definition of culture is numerous and vague, it is commonly Recognized that culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, values, attitudes and expectations. Culture is a major determinant in business negotiation. So have a clear picture of culture differences if of great significance.
Chapter One Cultural Differences
The east countries and west countries have produced different cultures on the different continents. Among the different cultures, value views, negotiating style and thinking model appear more obvious.
1.1 The Definition of Culture
Culture is a national system of specific concepts and values. These concepts become people’s behavior during their life and work. As early as 1952, Kroeber and Kluckhohn listed 164 definitions of culture that they found in the anthropology literature. Of course, many new definitions have appeared since then. For example, some scholars gave such definition that culture is an integrated system of learned behavior patterns which are characteristic of the members of a society and not the result of biological inheritance. In the thesis, culture refers to the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals, customs, habits, and capabilities acquired by individuals who interact in a specific area of society.
1.2 Causes of Cultural Differences
The impacts of regional differences, ethnic differences, political differences, economic differences, religious differences and value differences on people’s life are embodied in the catering, clothing, housing, holidays, rituals and other material and cultural life in all aspects. These result in cultural differences in different countries and regions.
1.2.1 Regional Differences
Regional differences refer to that people in different geographical regions often have different languages, life styles and hobbies because of the differences of geographical environments, levels of economic development and traditions, which would affect their behavior and habits. For example, western countries pay more attention to Christmas, while the regions have no snow, such as some African countries near the equator, where people have no idea of Christmas. The reason is that the best decoration to Christmas is snow, but people near the equator are not familiar with the snow which never falls on there.
1.2.2 Ethnic Differences
Ethnic differences refer to that different ethnic groups in the process of long-term development form its own languages, customs, habits and hobbies. They have their own characteristics in their diet, clothing, housing, holidays, rituals and other material and cultural life.
1.2.3 Political Differences
Political differences mean that policies and regulations of the political system standardize the behavior of the people’s role so that people under different political system have different political concepts. Take America and France for example: the power of American president is strictly limited by the Constitution and the other two authorities---Congress and Supreme Court. While France has to expand their president’s power due to their own conditions.
1 .2.4 Economic Differences
Economic difference is a reflection of the cultural differences due to economic factors. For example, people in the western developed countries have the rich life, and receive the high education so that they pay more attention to the quality of life, and they have good safety awareness. But in the Third World, especially the developing countries, people are more concerned with the problem of food and clothing. So this is reflected in cultural differences.
1.2.5 Religious Differences
Religion is a historical product with human beings developing into a certain stage. There are three main religions in the world: Christianity, Buddhism and Islam. Christian (Protestant) is predominant in northern Europe, North America and Australia; Christian (Catholic) is predominant in Western Europe and South American countries. Islam largely scope of the Middle East and North Africa. Many people in Asia regions believe in Buddhism. Different religions have different cultural trends and precepts, which affect the way that people understand things, conduct and values.
1.2.6 Value Differences
Value concepts mean people’s evaluation criteria to human being’s internal world. It contains time value, wealth value, the attitude toward life and risk. To the same problems, different people in different societies have different views or even diametrically opposite views. For example, parents in western countries tend to cultivate children to be independent. They encourage their children to deal with their personal things by themselves. Parents in eastern countries, however, always spoil their children. They always help their children finish some things which the children have the ability to cope with by themselves.
This causes their dependence on their parents even when they grow up. This shows that different countries share different values.
1.2.7 Law and Ethics Differences
Law and ethics is an integrated system, but sometimes they are contradictive in business negotiation. Western people like to deal with things according to laws. They usually go to negotiate with accompaniment of their lawyers. On the contrary, eastern people pay more attention to ethics rather than laws. In their eyes, business ethics refers to the measurement of business behavior based on standards of right or wrong, rather than relying entirely on principles of accounting, management or laws.
Chapter Two Impact of Cultural Differences on International Business Negotiations
With the rapid development of economy, we need to do business with businessmen under different culture background, so in order to reach trade agreement, it is necessary for us to study the impact of culture differences on international negotiation in global business activities. The impact of culture differences on international negotiation is extensive and deeply. Different cultures divide the people into different group and they are also the obstacles of people’s communication. Accordingly, it is required that the negotiator should accept the culture of each other. Furthermore, through culture differences, it is important that the negotiator reveal and understand the other party’s goal and behavior and make him or herself be accepted by the opponent to reach agreement finally
2.1 Impact of Value Views Differences on International Business Negotiations
Value Views Differences on International Business Negotiations fall into three types: time view, negotiation style, thinking model. Each has big influences on business negotiation